Saturday, April 13, 2024
Home xin EU mechanical design standards

EU mechanical design standards

by admin
0 comment

China has the industry standard of mechanical design manual. Does the EU have similar mechanical design standards?

development trend of testing institutions

developed countries have a long history of standard formulation, which is relatively comprehensive and stable. Their testing institutions are often established earlier, with large scale, stable business, high popularity and high reputation among customers. Moreover, developed countries have high requirements for all aspects of textile and clothing, such as appearance, technical indicators, environmental protection and so on, Its testing institutions have more and more transnational businesses, and gradually merge and acquire testing institutions in other countries

with the escalation of international trade frictions to technical barriers and green barriers among countries, certification marks have become local scarce resources. The merger drama of testing and certification industry has become more and more intense recently. Because in this industry, the merger of local national recognized safety sign testing institutions is more effective than any method. UL began as a local company in the United States. With its global development, it has almost broken the global testing of mechanical and electrical products. Intertek is an enterprise that started by merger. In the past ten years, it has also merged more than a dozen enterprises, many of which are well-known local certification companies. SGS of Switzerland, UL of the United States and bv of France, another listed company in the industry, have extended their tentacles to markets outside the mainland through mergers, such as Europe, North America and Asia

banner

EU’s requirements for textiles and clothing

the EU was the first to realize the technical barriers in international trade and successively formulated the cen certification standard and CE standard of the European Commission – on May 7, 1985, the European Council approved the resolution of 85 /C136 /01 on the new method of technical coordination and standardization. In addition, the resolution should only meet the basic requirements in the new health and safety requirements. Harmonized standards are formulated by the European Organization for standardization. Products that meet these standards can be regarded as meeting the basic requirements of EU directives

generally, all new method directives specify the basic requirements for adding the “CE” mark. These basic requirements stipulate the basic elements that must be achieved to protect the public interest, especially the basic requirements for protecting the health and safety of users, such as consumers and workers, and other aspects related to the protection of property or the environment. The purpose of the basic requirements is to provide and ensure a high standard of protection for users. Some of these requirements involve some risk factors related to the product, such as mechanical resistance, flammability, chemical properties, biological properties, hygiene, radioactivity and accuracy; Or related to the product or its performance, such as the provisions on materials, design, construction, production process and instructions prepared by the manufacturer; Or specify the main protection objectives in the form of list; More is the combination of the above methods. If a product has inherent hazards, it is necessary for the manufacturer to conduct hazard analysis to determine the basic requirements applicable to its products. These analyses shall be compiled into documents and put into technical documents. The basic requirements specify the results to be achieved or the degree of danger involved, but do not specify or predict the technical solution. This flexibility provides the manufacturer with a free choice of methods to meet the basic requirements, which can enable the manufacturer to fully select the materials or product design suitable for technological progress

the basic requirement of the directive is that the European standard providing technical specifications is approved by the organization for Standardization on the basis of unanimous adoption by the European Commission. This standard is called “coordination standard”, which is a “fast track” that meets the basic requirements of the directive. The harmonized standard has the status of “inferring that it meets the basic requirements”. It is a tool for manufacturers to prove that products meet the basic requirements of the directive. In other words, products that meet the harmonized standard can be circulated in the EU market, but the implementation of the harmonized standard is still voluntary

the harmonized standard involves not only the relevant provisions of the basic requirements, but also other provisions. However, in the implementation, the manufacturer should distinguish other provisions from the basic requirements. Sometimes, a coordination standard does not cover all the basic requirements of its corresponding directive. In this case, the manufacturer shall adopt other technical specifications to ensure compliance with the basic requirements of the directive

according to the regulations of the European Organization for standardization, Member States must convert the harmonized standards into national standards and revoke the national standards that are contrary to the harmonized standards, which is mandatory. Harmonized standards are not listed as a single category in European standards. Their titles and codes shall be published in the official journal of the European Union, and the corresponding new method directives shall be indicated

the decision on the global conformity assessment method (hereinafter referred to as the “global method”) approved by the European Council in 1989 is a supplement to the 1985 resolution on the new method, which aims to show that more methods can be used to prove that products meet the basic requirements of the directive, that is, if manufacturers choose other production criteria, they can prove that products meet the specified basic requirements through conformity assessment, However, it must be tested or certified by a third party. The global method puts forward the comprehensive policy and basic framework of conformity assessment, specifies the principles and objectives of controlling the conformity assessment of industrial products in the European single market, and also specifies the conformity assessment method and the principle of “CE” mark specified in the technical coordination directive. The Council’s 93 /465 /EEC “rules on the procedures at various stages of conformity assessment and the affixing and use of the” CE “conformity mark intended for the technical coordination directive” put forward the guidelines for the adoption of conformity assessment in the technical coordination directive, that is, the objective of conformity assessment should enable the government authorities to ensure that the products put on the market meet the basic requirements of the directive, especially the health and safety requirements of users and consumers

conformity assessment can be divided into eight basic modes, namely, internal production control, EEC type inspection, meeting type requirements, production quality assurance, production quality assurance, product verification, single piece verification and formal quality assurance. These different models can be combined to form a complete program. The scope and content of applicable conformity assessment procedures are specified in each new method directive. Generally, the conformity assessment procedure plays a role in the design and production stages. Some modes only involve the production stage, while others involve the design and production stages. Its purpose is to require the manufacturer to take all necessary measures to ensure the conformity of its products. The “CE” mark can be added when the product meets the coordinated standards or after appropriate conformity assessment procedures

the conformity assessment activity is complete
d by the designated organization. Its primary task is to conduct conformity assessment according to the basic requirements specified in the directive, so as to ensure that the products with “CE” mark comply with the relevant procedures in the relevant directives

all products covered by the new method directive must be affixed with the “CE” mark before they are put on the market. The “CE” mark is not for a certain commercial purpose, nor is it a mark of origin. It is defined as a legal conformity mark in the law of the European Union. All new products must be marked with “CE” before being put on the market (whether the products are produced by member countries or other countries). In addition, all used products imported from other countries and all products with significant modifications (regarded as new products) are required to be affixed with “CE” mark before listing

all textiles related to EU directives must meet the requirements of the directive and pass certain certification before they can enter the European unified market. The following are some regulations, standards and requirements related to textiles and clothing

1. Health and safety regulations

(1) construction textiles must meet the following requirements in combination, assembly, application or placement: durability and stability of machinery; Safety and fire prevention; Health, health and environmental protection; Safe use; Noise protection; Energy saving and heat saving can be put on the market

(2) in addition to meeting certain health standards, household textiles should have considerable flame retardant performance in terms of safety. For example, Ireland and Britain have banned the use of polyurethane foam in mattresses because of poor flame retardancy

(3) the national safety regulations on clothing relate to the flame retardancy of children’s and women’s pajamas. Delayed burning test is an essential requirement for children’s pajamas. Women’s pajamas must be labeled with “delayed burning” or “keep away from fire source”

(4) Regulations on the dosage and residue of chemicals and the types of banned drugs

formaldehyde – free formaldehyde on the fabric can cause inflammation of human respiratory tract, headache, weakness, temperature change, sensory disturbance, irregular sweating, accelerated pulse, dermatitis, skin allergy and other symptoms

azo dyes – some aromatic amine intermediates remaining in the synthesis of azo dyes have carcinogenic effects. Germany first issued a decree prohibiting the production and use of 20 carcinogenic aromatic amines represented by benzidine and dyes that can decompose these aromatic amines. Importers are not allowed to import textiles in contact with human body processed with these dyes. Subsequently, this decree was also used by other EU countries

harmful heavy metals – heavy metals that can remain on textiles and clothing include nickel, chromium, cobalt, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, etc. These heavy metals mainly come from some dyes, oxidants and metal accessories such as buttons and zippers of clothing used in printing and dyeing process. Excessive content of heavy metals in clothing will not only weaken human immune function and induce cancer, but also cause chronic poisoning and harm people’s central nervous system. In 1999, the European Union made regulations on imported textiles: products sold on the market are prohibited from using accessories containing more than 0.5 mg nickel per square centimeter in contact with human body, such as buttons, zippers, decorations and other metal objects

pentachlorophenol – it is a preservative. It can be used for the storage and transportation of cotton fiber and wool, and can also be used as thickener of printing pulp. Its toxicity can cause cancer. The waste water discharged from the use of pentachlorophenol in textile rinsing will pollute the environment. The production and use of pentachlorophenol is prohibited by German law, and the limit of pentachlorophenol in clothing and leather products is 5ppm; Some countries require the detection rate of the substance to be 0

2. Green Eco label

the production basis of environmental protection eco label used in EU textile market is usually evaluated by selecting relevant elements, mainly including prohibition regulations, limit regulations, fastness grade, main evaluation indicators and other forms. The common point is that those textiles with environmental protection eco label must be inspected and free of harmful substances, and the adopted environmental protection standards must be marked, And they are eye-catching with various eye-catching symbols and patterns in order to achieve the purpose of being widely known. For example, novotex “green cotton cloth” in Denmark, which has been sold for a long time in the European market and has been famous for a long time, is clearly marked on the content of its environmental protection label. Novotex guarantees that it will be picked manually; Oxidative bleaching; Non heavy metal dye dyeing; Mechanical garment ensures constant size. In addition, a large number of environmental protection and ecological labels based on environmental protection standards and limit values formulated by different associations, institutions and consulting companies are particularly complex and demanding, which can be called the top of the EU.

at present, the number of fibers, fabrics and clothing with more or less clear environmental and ecological standard labels are used in the whole European market

You may also like

Leave a Comment

Soledad is the Best Newspaper and Magazine WordPress Theme with tons of options and demos ready to import. This theme is perfect for blogs and excellent for online stores, news, magazine or review sites.

Buy Soledad now!

Edtior's Picks

Latest Articles

u00a92022u00a0Soledad.u00a0All Right Reserved. Designed and Developed byu00a0Penci Design.