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Evolution of pencil

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in 1564, a black mineral graphite was discovered in barodale, England. Because graphite can leave traces on paper like lead, which is much darker than lead, graphite is called “black lead”. At that time, shepherds in barodale used graphite to mark the sheep. Inspired by this, people cut graphite blocks into small strips for writing and painting. Soon, King George II simply took the barodale graphite mine into the possession of the royal family and made it a royal patent. Writing it with a graphite strip will not only dirty your hands, but also break easily. In 1761, the German chemist Faber first solved this problem. He washed the graphite with water to turn it into graphite powder, then mixed it with sulfur, antimony and rosin, and then formed the mixture into strips, which is much more tenacious than pure graphite strips and is not easy to dirty his hands. This is the earliest pencil. Until the end of the 18th century, only Britain and Germany could produce this kind of pencil in the world. Therefore, after Napoleon Bonaparte launched the war against neighboring countries, Britain and Germany cut off the supply of pencils to France. Therefore, Napoleon Bonaparte ordered French chemist Conde to find graphite ore in his own land and make pencils. However, the quality of graphite ore in France was poor and its reserves were small. Conde mixed clay into graphite and barbecued it in a kiln to make a good and durable pencil lead in the world at that time. The hardness and color depth of the pencil lead produced by adding different proportion of clay into graphite are also different. This is why we see H (hard pencil), B (soft pencil) and Hb (pencil with moderate hardness) marked on the pencil today. The task of putting a wooden coat on a pencil was done by American craftsman Monroe. He first built a machine that can cut out wooden strips, then carved a slot on the wooden strip, put the pencil lead into the slot, and then align and bond the two wooden strips. The pencil lead is tightly embedded in the middle. This is the pencil we use today. The refill made of graphite or clay with pigment is used as the writing medium. It is a writing or painting tool for learning, office, engineering drawing, art, painting, various marks, etc. In ancient Greece and Rome, lead rods similar to pencils were made of lead metal. This kind of pen is mostly made into a cone. It uses lead to rub with other objects to leave traces of lead, which can be used for marking. In the 14th century, similar modern pencils appeared in Europe. Dutch painters used them to paint on paper. Italians used a mixture of lead and tin to make lead rods for painting and writing. In 1565, there were diagrams drawn with pencils in the German C. gersner’s collection, and recorded the words “for drawing and notes, people made refills with lead and other mixtures, and then attached wooden handles to draw lines…”. In the same year, Britain began to make the most primitive wooden pencil by hand with graphite as the refill. In 1662, the world’s first pencil factory, shidelou pencil factory, was built in Nuremberg, Germany. In 1761, German F. Custer founded Faber Custer pencil factory in Nuremberg. Sulfur and antimony were used as binder and heated and mixed with graphite to make lead core, which made a big step forward in pencil manufacturing technology. From 1790 to 1793, French N.J. Kant first adopted the method of washing graphite with water to improve the purity of graphite, and bonded graphite with clay to make refill. This method is called Kant method. Kant pencil factory was established in 1793, which laid the foundation for modern pencil industry. In 1932, China established the first Dahua pencil factory in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Since then, Beiping China pencil company and Shanghai Huawen pencil factory have been built successively, both of which are semi-finished product processing plants. In 1934, a Chinese standard domestic pencil factory was established in Shanghai, began to make lead cores and began to study the use of domestic raw materials to make pencils. After the founding of the people’s Republic of China, large-scale pencil factories with an annual output of 150-250 million pieces have been built in more than 10 cities such as Harbin, Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan, Dalian, Fuzhou, Shenyang and Bengbu. Lead core manufacturing and painting, printing and decoration technology have also been continuously improved, and all plastic pencils, resin fine lead cores and fine core movable pencils have been developed. We have developed new equipment such as glue plate bundle clamp dryer, automatic painting machine, electric tunnel core burning furnace, lap board machine and various packaging machines
classification
according to their properties and uses, they can be divided into three categories: Graphite pencils, color pencils and special pencils. Graphite pencil lead is a pencil with graphite as the main raw material. It can be used for drawing and general writing. The hardness mark of graphite lead is generally “H” for hard pencil, “B” for soft pencil, “HB” for pencil with moderate hardness and “F” for pencil with hardness between Hb and H. Graphite pencils are divided into 18 hardness grades such as 6B, 5b, 4b, 3b, 2b, B, Hb, F, h, 2h, 3h, 4h, 5h, 6h, 7h, 8h, 9h and 10h. The larger the number in front of the letter, the harder or softer it is respectively. In addition, there are 7b, 8b and 9b3 grades of soft pencils to meet special needs such as painting. A colored pencil with a lead. The lead core is composed of clay, pigment, talc powder, adhesive, grease and wax. Used for marking symbols, drawing, drawing charts and maps, etc. Color pencils are usually packaged in sets (6, 12, 24, 36, 64 colors). Special pencils include glass pencils, color changing pencils, carbon drawing pencils, drawing pencils, watercolor pencils, pastel pencils, etc., which have their own special uses. ① Glass pencil: the lead is composed of pigment, grease and wax. It is used for writing or marking on the surface of glass, metal, enamel, ceramics, leather, plastic, plexiglass, etc. for industrial, pharmaceutical, national defense, survey and other departments. There are red, white, orange, light yellow, purple, dark green, light blue, black and other colors. ② Color changing pencil: commonly known as copy pencil. The lead core contains dyes such as sun resistant green lotus lake, and the writing can not be erased with an eraser. It is suitable for writing important documents and recording accounts for a long time. There are green lotus, red, blue, green, yellow and other colors, mostly green lotus. ③ Carbon pencil: also known as carbon pencil. The lead core is made of clay, charcoal powder, carbon black, etc. Used for painting and oil painting. ④ Blueprint pencil: also known as tracing pencil. Graphite lead core is treated with red dyes such as oil soluble wax red to block out light. It is used for direct printing after drawing. ⑤ Watercolor pencil: the lead core is added with water-soluble acid red and other acid dyes. When the lead core is stained with water, it is like watercolor pigment. It is used for photo coloring, sketching, drawing maps, statistical charts and so on. ⑥ Pastel pencil: the lead core is made of pigment and porous soft raw materials (such as calcium carbonate), free of grease and wax

[ancient times] 01 Charcoal pen: in ancient times, the powder was massive. When smearing /knocking, the ancestors found that some minerals would leave a lot of powder debris when rubbing. How was the first charcoal pen born. Up to now, charcoal is still the best tool to show roughness and rudeness. Due to the fragility of the material, it can only cause slight knocking damage and is easy to break. But if you use it to write bad words about others on the public rock wall, or make the leaves on others black and dirty, charcoal pen is definitely the first choice! 02. Crayons: in ancient times, powder blocks were smeared /knocked, which was different from charcoal pens. The original crayons were the products of animals and plants. Most o
f its properties are the same as that of carbon pen. The softness of the material makes it not easy to break, but reduces the knocking performance, but the nature of not easy to clean increases its application effect. 03. Brush: in the late ancient times, it was hairy, spitting /internal injury. In the late ancient times, the great Chinese invented the ultimate brush beyond the times. Its contribution to culture is well known; For pen experts, the new form of hair is not easy to wear and tear, but also can carry out spitting attack. When facing the enemy, it can also use internal force to hurt people through the hair, causing internal injury that the enemy is not easy to detect. Evolution: the brush is the supreme weapon of Chinese pen fighters. It has been continuously improved. All kinds of hair have been used to make brushes. Among them, Langhao is suitable for cultivating masculine internal power, and rabbit hair is suitable for cultivating feminine internal power. Beginners usually use a penmanship pen. Qizi Sanyang is recognized as the most suitable pen for beginners in all sects. Nowadays, people are greedy for huge profits and use fake brushes with plastic hair. They can’t transmit internal power at all. Don’t be fooled! [medieval times] 04 Chalk: in the middle of the middle ages, powder blocks, smearing /knocking /internal injury are actually improved charcoal made of white quicklime die. In order to facilitate cleaning, special ingredients have been added, and the application performance has been further weakened, and it is becoming more and more serious. The only constant is that the chronic respiratory organ injury to the author can not be eliminated. Pen fights are dismissed as waste. 05. Quill pen: in the middle of medieval times, liquid tube, smearing /spitting, just as the practicability of the same sword was gradually replaced by decoration. The wealthy businessmen in the West who did not need to fight with pens themselves carried quill pens that symbolized status. In fact, this pen made of animal natural hair tubes is the first liquid tube pen in human history. However, due to its low water content, it needs to replenish ammunition at any time like the initial firegun, so its actual combat performance is greatly reduced. Besides, his wearers are rich people with private security. Unless they compete with their friends, they don’t need to use it at all. 06. Watercolor pen: in the middle and late medieval era, it was hairy, smeared /spit /internal injury. In the Renaissance, it was really used by writers such as Da Vinci. The main fighting tool was still their dexterous and sensitive fingers. But at the same time, the watercolor pen that plagiarized the patent of the great wisdom “brush” of the Chinese people also appeared. However, Westerners do not pay attention to the brush hair, and foreigners with internal power are even rare (Da Vinci is one of them. He can “stop running horses” and “straighten hooves”), so the watercolor pen has little chance to show in the history of pen fighting. 07. Pencil: in the middle and late middle ancient times, there was a powder block. Although there was no innovation in the form, there was a major breakthrough in the content: the percussion performance was increased with high-quality metal. It was the decisive pen in the medium term other than the brush. However, the magic weapon needs heroes to take it. Because there are too few people who can use it, it has been lost. (just like no one can find the golden cudgel, Yanyue sword and snake spear.) Evolution: the modern so-called pencil only imitates its ancestors in color and appearance, and its quality is completely inappropriate. Some even claim that “the lighter the pen, the better”. Nonsense! Heaven will impose great responsibilities on the people, so they must first suffer their muscles and bones; It is this wrong concept of pen making that makes modern young people have no strength to bind chickens! 08. Pen: in the middle and late medieval era, it was made of powder and block. Due to the Enlightenment of the pencil, the pen Maker took steel as the main component of the pen. The first pen in history that gave consideration to quality, hardness and plasticity appeared. It is called “judge pen” in the Wulin. It may be that the user often puts the pen on people’s eyebrows and says “call me judge!” Because of. Evolution: in the era of cold weapons, the most advanced type of percussive pen is pen. However, after the change of times, it was buried for the same reason as pencil. See “modern pens”. [modern times] the significance of modern times in the history of pen combat is the improvement of quantity rather than the evolution of quality. The most important thing is that the cost of the pen is getting cheaper and cheaper, and the popularity is improving, so that carrying the pen with you is no longer eye-catching

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